The Great Migration of the Scot Irish, 1717-1775.

Primarily they made their mark by being a large group of Scot Irish and 5 waves of them.  The mass immigration of the Scot-Irish took place over a 58-year span between 1717 and 1775. This time period is known as the “Great Migration” and occurred in five “waves”. The immigrants from the first three waves established the major settlements of the Scot-Irish in the colonies. The immigrants from the first and second waves landed in Philadelphia and the Delaware River in Pennsylvania. The third wave of immigrants moved beyond Pennsylvania into Virginia and beyond.
The Scot-Irish who settled in America were descendants of the Lowland Scots {first time I read this} who were robust, adventurous, and rebellious. There is no architectural style or type of furniture attributed to them so, in turn, there are no known artifacts surviving that are specific to the Scot-Irish. But the legacy they did leave behind for future generations is their religion. In each settlement they built a church in which to practice their Presbyterian faith. In the early 1700’s, the Greencastle settlement was known as the East Conococheague Settlement. The first church, known as the Red Church, was built at Moss Spring.
Where is Franklin County PA? map to the right with a show of the famous Gettysburg of the Civil War.

great scot irish migration 1
The Scot-Irish were nomadic. Those who settled Greencastle had made their way westward from Philadelphia and then south into Antrim Township and then again continued west and over the Tuscarora Mountains. Along their route they left settlements about eight to ten miles apart. These settlements were quite often near springs or waterways.They adopted the Scandinavian housing of log cabins. They didn’t have many culinary skills and ate mostly mutton, lamb, and oats. Their music, unlike the Highlanders with their bagpipes, was played on fiddles and dulcimers.
Originally in 1682, there were only three counties – Chester, Philadelphia, and Bucks – that were established by William Penn. Chester included all of the land southwest of the Skuykill River to the extreme western and northern limits of the state. On May 10, 1729, Lancaster County was established from Chester County land. At the May 1741 quarter sessions court of Lancaster County, Antrim Township was established. At that time Antrim Township included all of present day Franklin County except Warren, Fannett and Metal Townships. Lurgan Township was established from the northern part of Antrim Township in 1743. On August 9, 1749, York County was established west of Lancaster from Lancaster County land. On January 27, 1750, Cumberland County was established from Lancaster County land. Greencastle was founded in 1782 by John Allison and was situated in the southern portion of Cumberland County. On September 9, 1784, Franklin County was established from the southwest part of Cumberland County. {Local research for tax records, deeds, or genealogy dating before September 9, 1784 must be done in Carlisle, the County seat of Cumberland County.
–From 1607-1776, most immigrants settled in the colonies and were not required to document their arrival. An exception is the records for the arrival of about 40,000 Germans in Pennsylvania from 1727-1808.
–Ulster Scots. Immigrants from Ulster started coming in 1710, but most arrived after 1725. {John Sr would have to be in this class as he was speculated to have been born abuot 1725 in Ulster Ireland, home of the Ulster Scots} Most entered at Philadelphia {our John Sr seemed to have entered at Philly since he was shortly on the TRAIL, but since the other John family of Bucks co had at least one child in NJ, then he probably boated in and settle in NJ, or Philly and then NJ.} and settled in East Jersey, following much the same pattern of settlement as the first Scottish immigrants. Many later moved into Warren and Sussex counties in northwestern New Jersey. By midcentury, 20 percent of the people of {once again the clans that stayed outnumbered the ones that moved on} central New Jersey were either Scots or Ulster Scots. The ports of entry were at: Burlingtonm Perth, Amboy, and Salem.
Between 1728-1740, the Right Period for John to get off the Boat Franklin County received its first Scotch Irishmen between 1728 and 1740, and York, whose initial settlers consisted of “families of the better class of peasantry,” between 1731 and 1735. It is said that no Scotch-Irish family felt comfortable until it had moved at least twice. {Definitely an heritage!} The Scotch-Irish went to one part of a river valley, Germans on the other; the next year’s arrivals advanced beyond the settlements to repeat the process. To the three original counties of Pennsylvania, along the Delaware (Philadelphia, Chester, and Bucks) the proprietors thought it wise in 1729 to add a fourth, Lancaster.
DESCRIPTION OF THE WAGON TRAIL: The Scotch-Irish followed the river valleys, keeping north of the disputed border line of Maryland generous Pennsylvania to the southwest. Following the path through the Great Valley, many Ulstermen now went into the rich Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, whose southern extremity opened out toward North and South Carolina.great wagon trail2

Great Migration In Context:  Some Briefs of Early American History

King George’s War (1744 to 1748), lasted only 4 years

1754-1755

French and Indian War (1754-63), lasted 9 years and during the time John McMichael was trying to settle in NC and SC.

1771-1775.

Revolutionary War (1775-1783), lasted 8 years.

NOTE:  the Whites again–Jacob WHITE born 1776, Faggs Manor, Chester County, PA. His father, James WHITE (1749-1815) died in Drumore Twp., Lancaster County. James’ parents were William & Margaret WHITE.  {Trying to determine when/where they came into U.S.}

Between 1717 and the Revolutionary War some quarter of a million Ulstermen came to America. By the time the Great Migration began in 1717, a few Ulstermen were present in at least half of the American colonies, often alongside immigrants who had recently come directly from Scotland.

 5 Great Waves of Scot Irish Emigration

There were five great waves of emigration, with a lesser flow in intervening years: (1)  First of  1717-1718; (2) Second of  1725-1729; (3) Third of  1740-1741; (4) Fourth of  1754-1755; and (5) Fifth of 1771-1775.  You will notice that the Great Migration was complete before the American Revolution, which made the Scot Irish very American as participants in the Great Experiment of the USA.  Obviously John McMichael and his son William McMichael of Mecklenburg NC, who fought in the Revolution on the side of the patriots (rebels or Whigs*) were among them.  In fact, there is much historical evidence that the original equivalents of the Declaration of Independence came out of the Mecklenburg region.

{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriot_(American_Revolution)}

In 1717, at least 5000 Ulstermen left Northern Ireland. Jonathan Dickinson reported from Philadelphia in 1717, that there had arrived “from ye north of Ireland many hundreds in about four months,” and that during the summer “we have had 12 or 13 sayle of ships from the North of Ireland with a swarm of people.”The people who entered America by the Delaware River, found a land of the heart’s desire. Their enthusiastic praise of Pennsylvania persuaded others to follow them, and then still others, until by 1720 “to go to America” meant, for most emigrants from Ulster, to take ship for the Delaware River ports, and then head west. For the entire fifty-eight years of the Great Migration, the large majority of Scotch-Irish made their entry to America through Philadelphia or Chester or New Castle.

The people who entered America by the Delaware River, found a land of the heart’s desire. Their enthusiastic praise of Pennsylvania persuaded others to follow them, and then still others, until by 1720 “to go to America” meant, for most emigrants from Ulster, to take ship for the Delaware River ports, and then head west. For the entire fifty-eight years of the Great Migration, the large majority of Scotch-Irish made their entry to America through Philadelphia or Chester or New Castle.

With these towns as their starting point, and the western frontier their destination, the immigrants, as they poured in found their path of progress almost laid out for them by geography. The Great Valley lead westward for a hundred miles or more; then when high mountains blocked further easy movement in that direction, the Valley turned southwestward across the Potomac to become the Shenandoah Valley. From the southern terminus of the Valley of Virginia, it was a short trip, by the time the pioneers had reached it, nto the Piedmont regions of the Carolinas, where colonists were now warmly welcomed. Within this seven hundred mile arc of backcountry, therefore, from Philadelphia as far as the upper Savannah River, most of the Scotch-Irish made their homes.

Chroniclers speak of the Scotch-Irish, who arrived in Cumberland during the decade after 1725 as folk “of the better sort…a Christian people.” It has been called the most important single Scotch-Irish center in America–”the seed-plot and nursery of their race…” Franklin County received its first Scotch Irishmen between 1728 and 1740, and York, whose initial settlers consisted of “families of the better class of peasantry,” between 1731 and 1735. It is said that no Scotch-Irish family felt comfortable until it had moved at least twice. {McMichaels and McMikles of early Franklin county PA, 1728 to 1740, just the right time to catch one possible

 

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